On Friday, the judge overseeing Trump’s civil fraud case issued a final ruling that inflicted a staggering financial penalty. With interest, the former president has been ordered to pay New York State about $450 million, a sum that threatens to wipe out a stockpile of cash, stocks, and bonds that he amassed since leaving the White House, according to a New York Times review of Trump’s financial records. He will have only 30 days or so to either come up with the money or persuade an outside company to post a bond.